A pregnant woman has a variety of risk factors that can affect the health of her fetus. A pregnant woman who smokes drinks alcohol, or takes drugs of any kind is at risk. Smoking is one of the most dangerous threats to the health of the fetus during pregnancy. Smoking during pregnancy can cause a child to be born with heart problems, as well as low birth weight and premature delivery. Secondhand smoke can also put the baby at a higher risk for health problems.
Hypertension during pregnancy
Hypertension (or high blood pressure) is one of the most common health problems during pregnancy. It affects one in 10 American women. About 25 percent of pregnant women have high blood pressure, 3 percent have severe hypertension, and 1 percent have preeclampsia.2 High blood pressure increases a woman’s risk of having premature labor and delivery, brain damage in her baby, kidney failure, stroke, and death. All pregnant women should be evaluated for hypertension, especially those who have risk factors for the disease.
Diabetes during pregnancy
Taking insulin during pregnancy requires careful management to avoid serious complications. Women with diabetes should have their blood sugar routinely monitored during pregnancy and during pregnancy complicated by diabetes. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels must be monitored at least monthly. A normal HbA1c is 4.7 percent or less, but women with gestational diabetes may have lower baseline levels than nondiabetic pregnant women.
Pyelonephritis during pregnancy
Pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the kidney. It occurs during or immediately after the pregnancy. Normally, it occurs in 3% to 5% of all pregnant women. In almost all cases, the infection causes inflammation of the kidney, which is known as pyelonephritis.
Acute Surgical Problems in pregnancy
Abdominal pain in pregnancy can arise in many forms. Many women experience mild discomfort, not unlike the heartburn often associated with pregnancy. Others experience sharp continuous pain, which is rare but severe and warrants urgent medical attention.
Before a woman goes into labor, she has to go through several stages of pregnancy. Preterm labor, however, is when these stages don’t fully complete. Preterm labor is when the uterus contracts before 37 weeks gestation. The contractions can be weak and irregular, or they can start and stop. If not properly treated, the contractions can lead to premature birth.
Prior Preterm Delivery
In preterm labor, a woman has contractions on a regular basis. Contractions can be mild or severe. Symptoms include abdominal or pelvic pain, changes in bowel or bladder habits, and lower back pain. If the contractions are frequent, lasting longer than five minutes, or getting closer together and stronger, it is time to see the doctor. When contractions occur before 37 weeks, it is called preterm labor.
Risk for Surrogate Pregnancy
Many couples are drawn to surrogacy because they cannot physically conceive a baby on their own. This can create a dilemma for couples as they seek to understand the risks they can face in surrogacy. Surrogacy is usually considered a safe, confidential, and ethical option. While this is true in many cases, there are some things that can go wrong with an intended parent’s surrogacy experience. To know surrogate mothers visit on maternità surrogata.
Prior Birth Injury
Birth injuries, also known as birth trauma, are injuries that occur during or immediately after birth. Birth injuries are very serious injuries, and the lifelong effects of these injuries can be severe, including permanent disabilities or death. Many birth injuries are caused by medical malpractice, such as doctor errors during labor or delivery, or errors during fetal monitoring. Other birth injuries are caused by mistakes made by hospital staff, such as failure to monitor fetal heart rate, failure to respond to fetal distress, or failure to timely deliver a baby with a condition known as shoulder dystopia.